Over numerous past centuries, common law crime has been very clearly defined in US and British jurisprudence as the joint union and / or operation of act and intent, or criminal negligence, as perpetrated by felons. Most heinous crimes have always involved two or more perpetrators and also a particular stage of planning, or plotting, by those perpetrators in order for them to prepare to commit the crimes. Such definite incremental criminal planning is formally called a "conspiracy" to commit the crime. "Take, for example, bank robbery, burglary, robbery, arson, blackmail, assassination, extortion, or kidnapping; these crimes are all felonies which usually involve a prior-stage of planning by usually two or more individuals. This prior-stage is now codified, listed, and defined in State and federal criminal codes as the separate and distinct crime of "conspiracy." In other words, it is a punishable felony for two or more people to sit down at a table and "conspire," or plot, to commit a felony crime, even if the crime is never actually committed. The intent of the perpetrators to conspire together works in union with the act of plotting the crime in definite accomplishable stages to make the conspiracy actionable, in and of itself, as a crime. All it takes for a criminal conspiracy to be hatched is the cooperative working of two, or more, criminally-minded human beings who have the mens rea, or criminal intent, to plan and commit an act that is designated by law as a crime. In fact, a misdemeanor, such as shoplifting, may be transformed into a felony by the culprits planning to enter a store to steal merchandise. This planning elevates the misdemeanor shoplifting to the status of a felony, burglary. Of course, there are some good conspiracies that may be planned by two or more individuals, such as surprise parties, but, by far, there are more more bad conspiracies planned and executed than good ones.
Since the beginning of recorded history, criminal conspiracy has been the cause of the worst and most tragic human criminal events, which have resulted in the saddest human history of war, death, and despair. Nonetheless, the primary recorders of American history since the inception of the republic, the academic historians, have had the prerogative to, either, classify and publishing these egregious events as what they actually were, criminal conspiracies, or as "accidental" events resulting merely from negligent mistakes instead of deliberate human intention. This gross misrepresentation of the facts has obviously been done in order to deliberately misshape, for political purposes, the perception of the people reading and studying the history of the events over decades of time; that is, the national electorate. In his fictional book "1984," George Orwell wrote about the sad inhuman result of a futuristic totalitarian government falsely revising human history to re-educate a collective population people to believe what was totally untrue, but necessary for the functioning of the fascist government. That falsely revised history was called, by Orwell, "Newspeak."
A clear and cogent example of this misshaping of public perception is the current published history of the use and application of the terminology "manifest destiny." Most academic histories of the Mexican War, 1846 to 1848, in nearly all of the US history textbooks used in high schools, colleges, and universities, state that "Mexico created a war with the USA in 1846 by crossing the Rio Grande River and attacking an encampment of American soldiers led by General Zachary Taylor. " This history goes on to state that the alleged attack led to General Taylor's expedited report to President James Polk that Mexico had committed an act of war against the USA, which merited a declaration of war by Congress against Mexico. This was exactly how the Mexican War was politically and academically described for well-over a hundred years until the real discernible facts bore witness to a much different set of circumstances. The real facts revealed that the term "manifest destiny" was created by President James Polk as what he envisioned as the eminent right of the United States to have claimed the land of North America formerly owned by Mexico, which now consists of the States of Arizona , California, New Mexico, Nevada, Wyoming, and parts of Utah. The facts also reveal that President James Polk summoned General Zachary Taylor and conspired with him, in Polk's White House office, to create a military situation on the Mexican border to which the Mexicans would react violently. Polk explicitly ordered Taylor to ensure that American lives were lost in an exchange of gunfire with Mexican troops on the American side of the border. In Polk's subsequent speech he gave before Congress, asking for a declaration of war, he used the term "manifest destiny" to glorify the ultimate purpose of the war that would shortly ensue. According to the true facts, Abraham Lincoln was the only US Representative in the 1846 House of Representatives to question Polk's motives for demanding a war against Mexico. Lincoln was actually the only voice in the entire 1846 Congress to question a call for war.
Therefore, one can only say, in truth, that President James Polk was involved in a criminal conspiracy with General Zachary Taylor in order to create an illegal war with Mexico for the purpose of illegally acquiring Mexican lands. Yet, you don't see it written that way in the history textbooks studied by American high school and college students, and the damning truth is, usually, not expressed by the high school teachers and the college professors to their classes. And why is this? In most cases It is because these teachers and professors are explicitly told by their administrators to strictly adhere to the textbook version of the facts about all historical events. If, however, the teachers and professors had the perspicacity and audacity to state to their students the historical truth about those misperceived events, they would, in all probability be terminated from their positions; but the use of the word "conspiracy" might, as a result of their daring, be more clearly understood by the American public in accordance with the true facts surrounding those, and the many other, "events" labeled as accidents; such as the 1941 Japanese attack at Pearl Harbor or the 1915 sinking of the RMS Lusitania, which precipitated the suspicious US entry into World War I.
Several distinguished historical writers, including the imminent historians John Toland and Georgetown University's Dr. Charles Tansill, have audaciously written the truth about the Pearl Harbor debacle, reclassifying the surprise attack as a deliberate conspiracy hatched by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, instead of a negligent accident. Yet, these true published facts about Pearl Harbor have not been enough to cause the official published history of the murderous incident to reflect that a criminal conspiracy occurred instead of accidental negligence.
Moreover, if the true, relevant, and material facts were published in all officially studied history books about the circumstances that led-up to Operation Desert Storm, and the Gulf War of 1991, there is no doubt in my mind that the precipitating reason for that invasion of Iraq would officially be that "a criminal conspiracy was plotted by a Presidential administration" instead of "the overt aggression of Saddam Hussain." I firmly believe that the true facts about Operation Desert Storm disclosed to me by the veteran journalist Jean Heller, of the former "St. Petersburg Times," with whom I conversed at length by telephone, would be sufficient to rewrite correctly what has been deliberately and incorrectly written into American history books since 1991, that "Saddam Hussain was encamped with his army on the Saudi-Kuwaiti border, threatening Saudi oilfields, as shown by NSA satellite photos." Jean Heller was, however, empowered by her newspaper in 1991 to buy satellite photos taken by the Soyuz-Karta Russian commercial satellite of the same ground supposedly photographed by the NSA satellite, at the same exact time. A careful examination of the Soyuz-Karta photos by ex-Pentagon photo analysts revealed that Saddam's army was not anywhere near the Saudi-Kuwaiti border, but had withdrawn back to near the Kuwaiti-Iraqi border, and presented no threat, whatsoever, to Saudi -Arabia. The tragic and unnecessary American and Iraqi deaths resulting from the US invasion of Iraq in 1991 were based totally upon egregious lies to the American electorate by a US Presidential administration. So, can it be said that a "criminal conspiracy" had been spawned by that Presidential administration, which led directly to the invasion of Iraq? And if a criminal conspiracy ensued in that case, how many other sordid criminal conspiracies have been spawned by federal officers since 1991, which have culminated in the deaths of thousands of innocent human beings around the nation and the world? Moreover, just how many of the recent mass-shootings, bombings, and other tragic events that have shaken the moral fabric of the republic been concocted federal conspiracies, which have been deliberately misclassified by federal law enforcement, and the media, as accidental happenings for the express purpose of misshaping American public perception? The correct and perturbing answer to these egregiously poignant questions will certainly mortify inquiring American minds!